A guidebook for local authorities and EMS stakeholders

The field of UAM EMS is still in its infancy and operates in a highly dynamic and multidisciplinary environment. Several domains are affected, such as the medical sector, the aviation domain and the urban and public sector realm. Each have their own ways of working and their own terminology. Clear guidelines on how to deal with UAM EMS are still missing.

This document provides a method, a framework for local authorities and EMS stakeholders, that guides them through the integration process of Urban Air Mobility (UAM) Emergency Medical Services (EMS) use cases into existing systems and operations. The framework can be understood as a stepwise instruction handbook and is divided into three main phases, namely ‘Explore’, ‘Analyse and ‘Implement’. Each phase is discussed generically and illustrated using real world case examples.


The ’Explore’ phase aims to identify a value-adding UAM EMS use case within a given functional urban area. The framework suggests analysing the respective area (can be a city or region) in terms of its geographical characteristics and its existing EMS system. Geographical barriers relate to topology, hydrography and climate and may indicate where a high operational gain of air transport lies. The existing EMS system should be analysed by consulting local EMS stakeholders. Current challenges or struggles of EMS stakeholder may hint at value adding use cases.


In the ‘Analyse’ phase, the framework suggests analysing the identified UAM EMS use case by means of quantitative and/or qualitative methods. The aim is to create a deeper understanding of the value proposition including expected performance levels and crucial influence parameters.

On the one hand, computer simulation is proposed as an objective data-driven quantitative analysis method. On the other hand, qualitative analysis methods include focus group discussions as well as user and expert interviews. Combining quantitative and qualitative analysis methods can provide a more comprehensive and nuanced understanding of the system and its context.


The ’Implement’ phase targets at the operationalization of an UAM EMS use case in the real world and may begin once the decision-makers give the go-ahead signal. In this phase, the envisioned use case encounters the real world. The framework suggests extracting a list of functional requirements and performing an initial feasibility check of the requirements. When the requirements are judged feasible, an implementation roadmap should be created. This roadmap describes the operational phases during the rollout and links tangible To-Do items and risks to the phases. Operational phases with increasing complexity are introduced, to keep the overall risk manageable and provide reaction time buffers for possible system adjustments.