Following consumer behavior theory, perceived risk is a multidimensional variable in user capability to adopt technologies. The definition of perceived risk in the context of the present AiRMOUR concept includes that of uncertainty about what UAM operations may provide in service and if this pays of the costs of operational implications. As from basic research, the risks arising from the public being exposed to UAM operations are not necessarily related to the objective operational risk indicated by an accident frequency and measured by a probability of fatalities or personal injuries per time.

Work package 4.2 ”Assessment and effective mitigation of perceived UAM risks and safety levels” deals with developing an understanding and means of how perceived risks can be assessed and even changed concerning its discrepancy to objective risk. The results shall be used to develop concepts on how to mitigate the perceived risks and thus increase the subjective perception of safety of the population affected by UAM services.

This work package focuses on those risks that the population is exposed by the operations of UAM:

  • performance risk
  • privacy risk
  • social risk, and
  • physical safety risk.

The risks arising from the purchase and ownership of UAM as well as psychological risks, as assumed in theory, are disregarded.

Following the examination of the perceived risk, the focus is on mitigating this risk. In general, the approach of perceived risk mitigation lies on closing the gap between actual and perceived risk through appropriate measures applied to compromised people within the context of UAM activities. The design of these measures is differentiated along the dimensions presented above in order to tackle the root cause of the perceived risk.


The objectives of Work Package 4.2 are fourfold and described as follows:

  • Identifying means to decrease the discrepancy between actual and perceived risks and safety levels. This objective focus on the concerns and the related reasons.
  • Selection of an appropriate risk perception mitigation strategy that can be tested in citizen
    focus groups organized at AiRMOUR sites. This includes the implementation of a risk
    mitigation, the data collection and the analysis.
  • The analysis shall reveal about how participants react to the different introductions and
    encounters with EMS UAM services.
  • Finally, it is objective to develop more effective perceived risk and safety mitigation strategies
    and approaches.

Read the report here.